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Full text of "ARS 930: Fresh collard greens or broccoli greens -- Specification"


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The African Organisation 
for Standardisation ^ 

S^ EDICT OF GOVERNMENT "^^ 

In order to promote public education and public safety, equal 
justice for all, a better informed citizenry, the rule of law, 
world trade and world peace, this legal document is hereby 
made available on a noncommercial basis, as it is the right of 
all humans to know and speak the laws that govern them. 




ARS 930 (2012) (English) : Fresh collard 
greens or broccoli greens — 
Specification 







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PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT 



AFRICAN 
STANDARD 



CD-ARS 
930 



First Edition 2012 



Fresh collard greens or broccoli greens — Specification 



/ 



V 




Reference No. ARS 930:2012(E) 
ICS 67.080.20 



'ARSO2012 



CD-ARS 930:2012 

Table of contents 

1 Scope 1 

2 Normative references 1 

3 Definitions 2 

4 Provisions concerning quality 3 

4.1 General 3 

4.2 Minimum requirements 3 

4.3 Classification 3 

5 Provisions concerning sizing 4 

6 Provisions concerning tolerances 4 

6.1 Quality tolerances 4 

6.3 Basis for calculating percentages 4 

7 Provisions concerning presentation 4 

7.1 Uniformity 4 

7.2 Packaging 4 

7.3 Presentation 5 

8 Marking and labelling 5 

8.1 Consumer packages 5 

8.2 Non-retail containers 5 

9 Contaminants 6 

9.1 Pesticide residues 6 

9.2 Other contaminants 6 

10 Hygiene 6 

Bibliography 9 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012 



Foreword 

The African Organization for Standardization (ARS) is an African intergovernmental organization 
made up of tlie United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) and tlie Organization of 
African Unity (AU). One of tlie fundamental mandates of ARSO is to develop and harmonize African 
Standards (ARS) for the purpose of enhancing Africa's internal trading capacity, increase Africa's 
product and service competitiveness globally and uplift the welfare of African communities. The work 
of preparing African Standards is normally carried out through ARSO technical committees. Each 
Member State interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the 
right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, regional economic 
communities (RECs), governmental and non-governmental organizations, in liaison with ARSO, also 
take part in the work. 

ARSO Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/I EC Directives, Part 2. 

The main task of technical committees is to prepare ARSO Standards. Draft ARSO Standards 
adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an 
ARSO Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. 

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of 
patent rights. ARSO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. 

This African Standard was prepared by the ARSO Technical Harmonization Committee on Agriculture 
and Food Products (ARSO/THC 1). 



© African Organisation for Standardisation 2012 — All rights reserved 

ARSO Central Secretariat 
International House 3rd Floor 
P. O. Box 57363 — 00200 City Square 
NAIROBI, KENYA 

Tel. +254-20-224561, +254-20-311641, +254-20-311608 
Fax: +254-20-218792 
E-mail: arso@arso-oran.orq 
Web: www.arso-oran.orq 



© 2012 ARSO — All rights of exploitation reserved worldwide for African Member States' NSBs. 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012 



Copyright notice 

This ARSO document is copyright-protected by ARSO. While the reproduction of this document 
by participants in the ARSO standards development process is permitted without prior 
permission from ARSO, neither this document nor any extract from it may be reproduced, stored 
or transmitted in any form for any other purpose without prior written permission from ARSO. 

Requests for permission to reproduce this document for the purpose of selling it should be 
addressed as shown below or to ARSO's member body in the country of the requester: 



© African Organisation for Standardisation 2012 — All rights reserved 

ARSO Central Secretariat 
International House 3rd Floor 
P.O. Box 57363 — 00200 City Square 
NAIROBI, KENYA 

Tel: +254-20-224561, +254-20-311641, +254-20-311608 
Fax: +254-20-218792 

E-mail: arso@arso-oran.org 
Web: www.arso-oran.org 

Reproduction for sales purposes may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement. 
Violators may be prosecuted. 



iv © ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012 



Introduction 

Collard greens are various loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea (Acephala Group), the same 
species as cabbage and broccoli. The plant is grown for its large, dark-coloured, edible leaves in 
many parts of Africa, Europe, USA, Brazil and Asia. They are classified in the same cultivar group as 
kale and spring greens, to which they are genetically similar. The name "collard" is a corrupted form of 
the word "colewort" (cabbage plant). In Congo, Tanzania and Kenya (East Africa), the plant is called 
sukuma i/i//7c/ with no distinction from kales. 

The cultivar group name Acephala ("without a head" in Greek) refers to the fact that this variety of B. 
oleracea does not have the usual close-knit core of leaves (a "head") like cabbage. The plant has an 
upright stalk, often growing up to two feet tall. The plant is very similar to kale. 

The plant is commercially cultivated for its thick, slightly bitter, edible leaves. They are available year- 
round, but are tastier and more nutritious in the cold months. For best texture, the leaves should be 
picked before they reach their maximum size, at which stage the leaves will be thicker and should be 
cooked differently from the new leaves. Age will not affect flavour. Flavour and texture also depend on 
the cultivar. 

Fresh collard leaves can be stored for up to 10 days if refrigerated to just above freezing (1°C) at high 
humidity (>95%). In domestic refrigerators, fresh collard leaves can be stored for about three days. 
Once cooked, they can be frozen and stored for greater lengths of time. 

Widely considered to be a healthy food, collards are good sources of vitamin C and soluble fibre, and 
contain multiple nutrients with potent anticancer properties, such as diindolylmethane and 
sulforaphane. 

Researchers at the University of California at Berkeley have recently discovered that 3,3'- 
diindolylmethane in Brassica vegetables such as collard greens is a potent modulator of the innate 
immune response system with potent antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer activity. 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



AFRICAN STANDARD CD-ARS 930:2012(E) 



Fresh collard greens or broccoli greens — Specification 



1 Scope 

This African Standard applies to collard greens or broccoli greens, or mixtures of the two which may 
consist of leaves, or parts of leaves, plants or mixtures of leaves and plants, grown from Brassica 
oleracea subsp. (var.) botrytis; subgroup cymosa {italica) (broccoli) and Brassica oleracea subsp. 
(var.) acephala; subgroup laciniata, intended for human consumption. 

2 Normative references 

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated 
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced 
document (including any amendments) applies. 

ARS 53, General principles of food hygiene — Code of practice 

ARS 56, Prepackaged foods — Labelling 

CAC/GL 21, Principles for the establishment and application of microbiological criteria for foods 

CAC/RCP 44, Recommended international code of practice for the packaging and transport of tropical 
fresh fruits and vegetables 

CAC/RCP 53, Code of hygienic practice for fresh fruits and vegetables 

CODEX STAN 193, Codex general standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed 

ISO 874, Fresh fruits and vegetables — Sampling 

ISO 2169, Fruits and vegetables — Physical conditions in cold stores — Definitions and 
measurement 

ISO 6561-1, Fruits, vegetables and derived products — Determination of cadmium content — \ZPart 
1: Method using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry 

ISO 6561-2, Fruits, vegetables and derived products — Determination of cadmium content — Cpart 
2: Method using flame atomic absorption spectrometry 

ISO 6633, Fruits, vegetables and derived products — Determination of lead content — Flameless 
atomic absorption spectrometric method 

ISO 6634, Fruits, vegetables and derived products — Determination of arsenic content — Silver 
diethyldithiocarbamate spectrophotometric method 

ISO 6637, Fruits, vegetables and derived products — Determination of mercury content — Flameless 
atomic absorption method 

ISO 7563, Fresh fruits and vegetables — Vocabulary 

ISO 7952, Fruits, vegetables and derived products — Determination of copper content — Method 
using flame atomic absorption spectrometry 

ISO 9526, Fruits, vegetables and derived products — Determination of iron content by flame atomic 
absorption spectrometry 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012(E) 

ISO 17239, Fruits, vegetables and derived products — Determination of arsenic content — Metinod 
using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry 

3 Definitions 

For the purposes of this standard, the terms and definitions in ISO 7563, and the following terms and 
definitions apply. 

3.1 

similar varietal characteristics 

the collard greens or broccoli greens shall be of the same general colour and character of growth. No 
mixture of varieties or types shall be permitted which materially affects the appearance of the lot. 

3.2 
fresh 

the greens are not more than slightly wilted 

3.3 

fairly tender 

the greens are not tough, or excessively fibrous 

3.4 

fairly clean 

the appearance of the greens is not materially affected by the presence of dirt, dust, or other foreign 
material 

3.5 
well-trimmed 

the main stem shall not extend more than one inch below the point of attachment of the first leaf 

3.6 
damage 

any defect which materially affects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality of the individual 
unit, or the lot as a whole. Any one of the following defects, or any combination of defects, the 
seriousness of which exceeds the maximum allowed for any one defect, shall be considered as 
damage: 

(a) Coarse stalks or seedstems when they are woody and tough and more than 9 cm in length, or 
when they are fairly tender or tender and are more than one-third the length of the entire plant. 
The length of the plant shall be measured from the base of the main stem to the tip of the leaf 
extending the greatest distance from the base of the main stem; 

(b) Discoloration when the appearance of the unit is materially affected by yellowing or any other 
type of discoloration; and, 

(c) Mechanical damage when the unit is badly crushed, torn, or broken. 

3.7 

serious damage 

any defect which seriously affects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality of the individual 
unit, or the lot as a whole. Any one of the following defects, or any combination of defects, the 
seriousness of which exceeds the maximum allowed for any one defect, shall be considered as 
serious damage: 

(a) Insects when the unit is noticeably infested, or when it is seriously damaged by them; 

(b) Discoloration when the unit is badly discoloured; and, 

(c) Decay. 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012(E) 

4 Provisions concerning quality 

4.1 General 

The purpose of the standard is to define the quality requirements of broccoli greens or collard greens 
at the export control stage, after preparation and packaging. 

4.2 Minimum requirements 

4.2.1 In all classes, subject to the special provisions for each class and the tolerances allowed, the 
broccoli or collard greens must be: 

(a) intact 

(b) sound; produce affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is 
excluded 

(c) clean and trimmed, i.e. practically free from all earth or other growing medium and practically 
free of any visible foreign matter 

(d) fresh in appearance 

(e) practically free from pests 

(f) practically free from damage caused by pests 

(g) turgescent 

(h) not running to seed 

(i) free of abnormal external moisture 

G) free of any foreign smell and/or taste. 

4.2.2 The produce must be of normal development. The development and condition of the produce 
must be such as to enable it: 

(a) to withstand transportation and handling 

(b) to arrive in a satisfactory condition at the place of destination. 

4.3 Classification 

The produce is classified as defined below: 

4.3.1 Class I 

Class I consists of collard greens or broccoli greens, of similar varietal characteristics which are fresh, 
fairly tender, fairly clean, well-trimmed, and of characteristic colour for the variety or type; which are 
free from decay and free from damage caused by coarse stalks and seedstems, discoloration, 
freezing, foreign material, disease, insects or mechanical or other means. 

4.3.2 Class II 



This class includes collard greens or broccoli greens that do not qualify for inclusion in Class I but 
satisfy the minimum requirements specified above. 

The following defects may be allowed, provided the collard greens or broccoli greens retain their 
essential characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality and presentation: 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012(E) 

(a) damaged leaves, such as cracks, bruises, holes or tears 

(b) defects in colouring 

(c) slight lack of freshness 

5 Provisions concerning sizing 
Sizing is not used in this produce. 

6 Provisions concerning tolerances 

6.1 Quality tolerances 

in order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than a total of 10 per 
cent, by weight, of the units in any lot, may fail to meet the requirements of the grade provided that 
not more than one-half of this amount, or 5 per cent, shall be allowed for serious damage by any 
cause, and including therein not more than 2 per cent for decay. 

6.2 Application of tolerances 

The contents of individual containers in the lot, based on sample inspection, are subject to the 
following limitations provided that the averages for the entire lot are within the tolerances specified: 

(a) When a tolerance is 10 per cent or more, individual containers in any lot shall have not more 
than one and one-half times the tolerance specified. 

(b) When a tolerance is less than 10 percent, individual containers in any lot shall have not more 
than double the tolerance specified provided that at least one specimen which does not meet 
the requirements may be permitted in any container. 

6.3 Basis for calculating percentages 

Percentages shall be calculated on the basis of weight or an equivalent basis. In sorting or grading 
the sample, the unit shall be the plant, the leaf, or a portion of the leaf or plant exactly as it occurs in 
the sample. A plant or portion of plant shall not be broken to remove the defective portion, but shall be 
considered as a unit. 

7 Provisions concerning presentation 

7.1 Uniformity 

The contents of each package must be uniform and contain only beet greens of the same origin, 
quality, colour and size (if sized). 

The visible part of the contents of the package must be representative of the entire contents. 

7.2 Packaging 

Collard greens or broccoli greens must be packed in such a way as to protect the produce properly. 
The materials used inside the package must be new\ clean, and of a quality such as to avoid causing 
any external or internal damage to the produce. The use of materials, particularly of paper or stamps 
bearing trade specifications is allowed, provided the printing or labelling has been done with non-toxic 
ink or glue. 

Collard greens or broccoli greens shall be packed in each container in compliance with CAC/RCP 44. 



For the purposes of this Standard, this includes recycled material of food-grade quality. 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012(E) 



7.2.1 Description of containers 

The containers shall meet the quality, hygiene, ventilation and resistance characteristics to ensure 
suitable handling, shipping and preserving of the collard greens or broccoli greens. Packages must be 
free of all foreign matter and smell. 

7.3 Presentation 

The collard greens or broccoli greens may be presented as bunches. 
8 Marking and labelling 

8.1 Consumer packages 

In addition to the requirements of ARS 56, the following specific provisions apply: 

8.1.1 Nature of produce 

If the produce is not visible from the outside, each package shall be labelled as to the name of the 
produce and may be labelled as to name of the variety and/or commercial type. 

8.2 Non-retail containers 

Each package^ must bear the following particulars, in letters grouped on the same side, legibly and 
indelibly marked, and visible from the outside: 

8.2.1 Identification 

The exporter, packer and/or dispatcher shall be identified by name and physical address (e.g. 
street/city/region/postal code and, if different from the country of origin, the country) or a code mark 
officially recognized by the national authority.^ 

8.2.2 Nature of produce 

— "Collard greens" or "Broccoli greens" 

8.2.3 Origin of produce 

Country of origin and, optionally, district where grown, or national, regional or local place name. 

8.2.4 Commercial specifications 

— Class 

— Nature expressed by "Bunched collard greens" or "Bunched broccoli greens" 

— Number of bunches. 

8.2.5 Official control mark (optional) 



3 



Package units of produce prepacked for direct sale to the consumer shall not be subject to these marking provisions but 
shall conform to the national requirements. However, the markings referred to shall in any event be shown on the transport 
packaging containing such package units. 

The national legislation of a number of countries requires the explicit declaration of the name and address. However, in the 
case where a code mark is used, the reference "packer and/or dispatcher (or equivalent abbreviations)" has to be indicated 
in close connection with the code mark, and the code mark should be preceded by the ISO 3166 (alpha) country/area code 
of the recognizing country, if not the country of origin. 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012(E) 

9 Contaminants 

9.1 Pesticide residues 

Fresh broccoli or collard greens shall comply with those maximum pesticide residue limits established 
by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for this commodity. 

9.2 Other contaminants 

Fresh broccoli or collard greens shall comply with those maximum levels for contaminants established 
by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for this commodity. 

10 Hygiene 

10.1 It is recommended that the produce covered by the provisions of this Standard be prepared 
and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of ARS 53, CAC/RCP 53, and other relevant 
Codex texts such as Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice. 

10.2 The produce should comply with any microbiological criteria established in accordance with 
CAC/GL 21. 




A bundle of collard greens 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012(E) 




Quality collard greens 



Fresh collard greens 




Broccoli greens 




Growing broccoli greens 



Growing collard greens 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012(E) 




Collards seeding 



Collards in farm 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012(E) 
Bibliography 



United States Standards for Grades of Collard Greens or Broccoli Greens, Effective April 16, 1953 
(Reprinted — January 1997) 



) ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved 



CD-ARS 930:2012(E) 



< ARSO 2012 — All rights reserved